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Penguin 3.0: What Got Hurt, What Didn’t, and 3 Things You Need to Know to Remain Relevant

Penguin 3.0: What Got Hurt, What Didn’t, and 3 Things You Need to Know to Remain Relevant

Since our last Penguin Post a lot of things have changed, but the panic and uncertainty around Google updates have remained the same. Every time an update comes around people are still asking the same question:

What Did This Update Do and How Do I Recover? (By Reading This Post. Duh!)

With an increasingly large amount of rank tracking data (we track millions and millions of pages every single day) we have a huge trove of information that we’ve been able to sort through since the Penguin Update started. With misinformation and anecdotes thrown around like they are facts, we wanted to step back in and give you a look at what is going on with this Google Penguin update, backed by real data. We’ve mined through all of this data, and we think these results will show you exactly what got punished by Penguin and what you need to do in the future to continue to rank websites.

I’m Ready – Give Me Data!

This time around, we were able to dive even deeper with our analysis than we were last time. Since the Penguin update is a “web spam” update we wanted to look at exactly what Google was looking at – the backlinks themselves! So for each site in our dataset we took the top 50 backlinks and analyzed them both for their footprint and for their level of quality. The results we got were not unexpected at all:

Microsite Masters Backlink Distribution Non Penalized Sites

Microsite Masters Backlink Distribution Penalized Sites

A quick aside: I’m sure after seeing these graphs some of you are curious what a “high quality” post is and what a “low quality” post is. We considered a low quality post to be any post on a very thin website/subdomain (under five pages), any post that didn’t match the niche of the site it was hosted on, and any site that scored very highly on a custom webspam classifier that was provided to us by Cortx. We disregarded any links whose footprint did not neatly fit into of these categories. After spending countless hours manually analyzing this data we can say that it is over 99% accurate in determining what is a high quality article and what is not.

The results should not be that surprising; sites that were not hit by Penguin were more likely to have backlinks from high quality articles and high quality citations. Meanwhile, sites that were hit by Penguin were more likely to have backlinks from low quality articles and spammy social bookmarks and blog comments. When we saw this we were a little disappointed, as we were hoping for something more unexpected.

So we decided to take a look at the data in a slightly different way. Instead of looking at the average link distribution, we instead looked at what percentage of sites had at least one high quality backlink and what percentage of sites had at least one low quality backlink. This gave us a slightly different story:

Microsite Masters One Good Link

At a glance these numbers might not seem that interesting. Nearly 100% of non penalized sites had at least one good backlink and nearly 100% of penalized sites had at least one obviously spammy backlink, which is what you might expect. However if you look closer, nearly every site that was not penalized also had at least one spammy backlink. What this means is that bad links by themselves did not cause sites to get hit by Penguin.

We decided to take a look at our original backlink distribution graphs above and split them up so that we were only comparing the high quality posts and the low quality posts:

Microsite Masters Penguin Backlink Quality Distribution

This graph shows once again that bad links are not the problem – nearly 50% of all contextual links going towards sites not penalized by Penguin were considered to be spammy. But even more important is the statistic for penalized sites. For sites that were penalized, under 5% of their links were considered to be high quality. This indicates that bad links had very little to do with the update. Instead the Penguin update is targeting sites that do not have enough good links!

What Does That Mean for Me?

This means that Penguin is not punishing sites for bad links, but is instead “erasing” the value of bad links. When writing our first Penguin Post we did not find this to be nearly as much the case, and Google has commented that “the newer generation of Penguin goes much deeper and has a really big impact in small areas” and Matt Cutts has recently commented that Google is closing several negative SEO loopholes.

So our conclusion from this data is that when each Penguin refresh happens, Google is removing the juice from those bad links, leaving only the better links left. The sites that have a solid foundation of high quality links will continue to prosper and the sites that were built entirely on lower quality links will see their rankings fall.

I think I understand how Google’s Penguin Update works, but what about those 3 things I need to know!


high quality links

1. If You Are Penalized (or Not), Build Some High Quality Links!

This is the most important thing to take away from our information: high quality links reign supreme. Do whatever you can to get links from authorative sites in your industry. Write high quality blog posts (our favorite method). Make tier 1 websites that are high enough quality to also function as their own stand-alone websites; we like to call them microsites.

Create Youtube videos and tutorials – although we didn’t include this footprint in our chart (due to a relatively smaller amount of data), sites that were not affected by Penguin were twice as likely to have Youtube links in their backlink profile.

Lastly, if you are a local plumber who is wondering how in the world you can write engaging and inspiring content about plumbing, at the very least get high quality local citations.


microsite masters google penguin filter

2. Do Not Worry About Blackhat Links or Negative SEO

Our data shows that this refresh was almost entirely a “link devaluation” instead of a “link penalty.” This means that if you are doing whitehat SEO you should not have to worry about negative SEO; your good quality links will still keep your site ranking and any low quality links are just noise that you can filter out.

The important thing to remember is that the road to recovery does not come from obsessively worrying about disavowing or removing bad links. Instead the road to recovery, no matter what hat you are wearing, comes from getting more high quality sites to link to you.


private blog networks

3. High Quality Private Blog Networks Still Work

In our last Penguin update we talked about how blog networks still work, but that they need to be done in a high quality way. Although we found many SEOers took to heart some of our more obvious suggestions (like varying anchor text), the overall implementation of many of the blog networks we saw were still often very lazy and very sloppy.

For the low quality posts we still saw ridiculous things like links that didn’t make any sense within the flow of the article, links from blogs with only one post, and links from blogs with posts about “garcinia combogia”, “e cigs”, and “payday loans” all side by side (I’m sure that will make Google instantly fall in love with your site).

Black and grey hat SEOers also often forget the “private” part of a private blog network. Google has made it very clear that they are going after blog networks, so if you are buying your blog network links from a slick sounding sales page, it will only be a matter of time before Google catches on. Any blog network where anyone can purchase links should not be considered a “private” blog network, no matter what the owner promises regarding footprints or security.

Stick to high quality private blog networks that are either operated entirely by you, or by a small exclusive circle of friends or business partners. Avoid free-for-all “public private” blog networks which are great for churn and burn but not much else.

That’s All For Now!

It’s been a long two years since we last published a blog post, and we hope it was worth the wait. We have been working on some great experiments here at Microsite Masters and we won’t keep you waiting that long next time!

Why Business Owners Rank Better Than SEOers and 5 Things You Can Learn From Them

Why Business Owners Rank Better Than SEOers and 5 Things You Can Learn From Them

It’s been a little over a month since the Google Penguin update shook the SEO world. We’re seeing both service providers and agencies (as well as businesses!) either step their game up or pack their bags and move onto something else. As mentioned in our previous post, we’d be elaborating on the methods shared to recover from the Penguin Update.

It’s time to start running promoted sites like a real business.

We could give you more stats about the sites that were negatively hit by the Penguin Update, but it’s more valuable to look at the sites that were on the opposite side of the fence. What are the winners doing? What are they not doing? Let’s find out!

Passive Marketing Only Goes So Far

Even when it was “easy” to rank for competitive keywords with a link building strategy that worked before the Google Penguin update, the mindset of many SEOers (and web savvy business owners) was to rank as high as possible for targeted keywords. While this seems logical in theory, that methodology doesn’t always take into consideration on-page elements which permit converting traffic or enhancing the value of the business or user experience.

There’s no doubt SEO practices have changed this year. It’s time to work hard, get creative, and go back to the most basic methods to gain exposure. It’s time to start ACTIVELY MARKETING again.

Real Businesses Focus On Conversions

If you’re building your business to rank well on search engines as a primary way of generating revenue, your business will be as strong as a house of cards. You’re not building a business, you’re creating a hustle. Build a strong brand first and the rankings will usually follow.

To demonstrate the points we’re making, it would only be fair to use our business as an example. In the chart above, you’ll notice that only 13.43% of our traffic comes from search queries.

While some may think that number is low in comparison to both referral and direct traffic, it’s an indicator that we’re not just relying on “ranking well”. Our brand is recognized and shared by others. We’ve created a business, not a passive income stream based on high SERP positioning.

More importantly, the stats above don’t take into account paid search marketing because we haven’t had the time to building out the campaign as we’re focused on scaling “what’s working”.

Let’s take it one step further and analyze the organic traffic we’re receiving. While we’re obsessively tracking our rankings for both branded queries and keywords we’re targeting, it’s interesting to see the distribution percentages shared in the chart below.

We know what terms we’d like to rank for, we know what terms bring in qualified traffic, and we know that building a strong brand (in our case and the same for many businesses) is more important than anything. We’d rather 77% of queries be derived from our brand name (Microsite Masters) over ranking for the term “rank tracker”. Let’s now focus on Target KW Queries!

As a result of publishing compelling content in our last post, we were able to improve our ranking (“naturally”) for one of the keywords we’re targeting. It wasn’t difficult, it didn’t involve intentional link building or thinking about “anchor text variations”, and it didn’t cost anything but our time.

Ranking well for the term rank tracker is a reward for doing “exactly what we’re supposed to be doing”. If we lost our rankings for that term, we’d survive. We’re not reliant on search engines as a primary traffic source. This is a concept that more SEOers need to come to terms with.

The most important aspect of ranking / search engine visibility should always come down to traffic and conversions. Post Penguin, sites ranking for competitively (commercial/buying terms) typically have business models that are thought-out and do more than just relying on rankings.

SEOers Create and Kill Businesses

Unless you’re a service provider offering a self-serve package where buyers provide the details of exactly what they want promoted, most SEOers lack the necessary business fundamentals to properly service the Internet marketing needs of a typical business owner in today’s market.

Most SEOers are sales professionals that know enough about the benefits of search engine optimization to sell a business owner on why it’s necessary. Before the Penguin update it wasn’t difficult to rank a site using just off-page link building tactics. Everyone went home a winner!

In the past few years, thousands of businesses emerged and thrived by “working with SEOers” that passively marketed their websites by building links using anchors matching target keyword sets.

Some business owners used it to compliment other marketing efforts, some relied exclusively on SEO, and some business owners chose to do nothing relating to Internet marketing whatsoever.

Leveling The Playing Field

Some business owners lost entire businesses as a result of the Google Penguin update. There are also business owners that were positively affected or didn’t notice any difference at all in the SERPs.

Some business owners are blaming SEOers for “killing their business“, while at one time they were responsible for enhancing their business and creating new revenue generating opportunities.

Business owners affected by the update with diversified marketing strategies or a positive outlook on the future of organic promotion are actively taking matters into their own hands as a result of SEOers not providing a solution or not having the confidence to suggest one moving forward.

What are Smart Business Owners and SEOers Doing to Survive?

Method #1: Understanding Real User Queries

Stop thinking about the associated search volumes on targeted keywords and start thinking about real user queries. The mindset of many SEOers before the Penguin Update was to create traffic acquisition opportunities based on ranking terms with statistically significant search volumes.

While this may have worked previously, smart business owners often analyze how new users arrive to their sites based on entered queries. Even if you don’t have access to a sites analytics account using tools like to search brand names, competitor brand names, and partially matched keywords provides a competitive advantage when applied accordingly.

Google’s Autocomplete algorithm should be used more to gather insights on real user queries, attitudes, behaviors, and search tendencies when compared to brands and specific keyword sets.

Method #2: Finding New Promotional Channels

Finding promotional channels (or “footprints” if you’re an SEOer) is different today when the focus on content quality and relevancy is valued higher than ever before. Reverse image searching is a different approach to finding link building targets as well as ways to enhance social outreach.

Step One: Find a widely used image that’s relevant to your brand or industry. Starting with Google Image Search to gather ideas can make the process easier. Select an image or two to start.

Step Two: Go to and enter the image URL you’ve selected to begin your search.

Step Three: Find link building, visibility, and relationship building opportunities. TinEye’s index is growing rapidly each month so the ability to reverse engineer image search using their technology can make any business owner or SEOer a force to be reckoned with. And the best part of all, it’s free!

Business owners take a similar approach to “finding footprints” but the intentions are different than the typical SEOer (or link building bandit in this example). Smart business owners often reverse engineer ways to obtain branding opportunities so their message is in front of the right audience.

Often times they’re not even thinking about the SEO benefits as the effort is done purely to enhance the bottom line of the business. Moving forward, SEOers should explore social outreach opportunities, become active members on relevant forums to gain credibility, and reverse engineer for legitimate marketing purposes instead of finding new sites to post links on.

The game has changed, evolve or die.

Method #3: Guest Blogging Vs. Blogger Outreach

There’s a difference between “guest blogging” to gain visibility, traffic, and exposure and “blogger outreach” where e-mailing random blogs that are niche relevant offering content in exchange for links is the focus. Before blogging and online publishing was an option many business owners created content to be featured within industry publications, local newspapers, and magazines. It was done to gain credibility, provide value to readers, and of course to attain new business.

When SEOers take the approach of scaling SEO campaigns for the purposes of posting links with the bi-product being increased SERP visibility, content quality often suffers which diminishes business credibility, provides little to no value to readers, or doesn’t generate measurable traffic.

If you’re not willing to put your brands logo, your real name, or cite your brands name within outreach content you should think twice about pointing links direct to site via blogger outreach.

Guest blogging for business owners will never die when the “SEO benefits” are a secondary focus.

Method #4: Treat All Traffic As If You’re Paying For It

Smart business owners realize there’s a real cost in both time and money for attaining traffic. Prior to the Penguin Update when it was “easier” to rank for competitive terms, the traffic generated from those queries wasn’t free, it was just cheap in comparison to relative CPC prices on search.

Business owners that used link building for ranking organically in addition to paid traffic and conversion optimization strategies are far ahead of the average SEOer for the following reasons:

1) It’s faster and easier to tell how a site initially converts when using paid traffic sources.

2) The mindset of marketers using paid traffic is to refine and optimize traffic and spends over time.

3) It’s absolutely necessary to split test and focus on conversion and user retention elements.

4) Paid traffic marketers utilize all data. Re-targeting and list building should go without saying.

SEOers focusing exclusively on generating organic traffic through link building with the intentions of increasing SERP visibility felt the wrath of the Penguin update more so than business owners and marketers using natural search visibility as a way to compliment their other marketing efforts.

Lessons Learned: Maximize return on all traffic generated. Never take a traffic source for granted.

Method #5: Become Ruthless In Business

Most successful (and experienced!) business owners are ruthless with their time and how they run their business. They’re usually passionate about what they do, always looking for ways to improve or grow, and aware of things happening within their respective industries.

SEOers can apply similar business strategies to gain a competitive edge. See below:

1) Form strong alliances with brand advocates. These relationships are the lifeblood of your business. Position your sites, offers, and web properties to thrive as if every conventional traffic source were to evaporate tomorrow. Communicate regularly and return favors when asked.

2) Obsess over the image of your brand. We’re absolutely ruthless when it comes to our public image. Web copy, use of images, phrasing, colors, etc. Extreme care needs to go into everything you do. Be deliberate. Be conscious. Be accountable. Make no exceptions. Strive for excellence!

3) Create phenomenal content. It works for all types of businesses. Just do it. Successful business owners don’t take shortcuts. They find solutions when faced with challenges and embrace change.

4) Start acting like a leader. Your target market and competitors will realize the value of your business when you position your brand accordingly. Influence the SERPs by taking pride in your business. Don’t rely on the SERPs to influence your audience. Respect and trust is given when it’s earned. Fabricating credibility isn’t sustainable, it’s not a long-term business model, think ahead!

5) Embrace your competitors. It’s short-sighted not to respect and value perceived competitors. Successful business owners understand that competition is a key element of creating a market.

We’re often asked by our brand advocates and the SEO community if we view SEOMoz as a direct competitor. While we’re competing in the same market (SEO Monitoring Industry) we’re offering two completely different services to our users. Yes, we’re overlapping with respect to rank tracking but it really comes down to the requirements of users to decide which toolset is best for their SEO needs.

We’re competing in the same market, but we choose to compete against ourselves.

More SEOers need to start embracing competitors in overlapping keyword markets and find more ways to demonstrate their value while not being overly concerned with what everyone else is doing.

Successful businesses challenge themselves as an organization and realize there are strategies and business fundamentals from other industries that can be applied.

It’s sometimes hard for SEOers to reach a level of business maturity where the realization of the “big picture” is apparent as the mindset before the Penguin update was to outrank all competitors in the SERPs and take no prisoners. Additional reasons to embrace “perceived competitors”:

1) You may be doing business in the future. API access can be granted or utilized by either party.

2) Big achievements in business (i.e. 18mm in funding) is great for the health of an entire industry.

3) Business owners with stand-up reputations are recognized by competitors. Why be mysterious?

4) Exit strategies are necessary. Can you buy a competitors business? Know what yours is worth?

5) You meet the same people on the way up as you do on the way down. Reputations are everything.

What Can SEOers Do Moving Forward?

Try things you haven’t done before! Intentionally link to competitors, promote their content through social channels, and focus on building a strong reputation in business first. (SERPs come second) Give everything you have to offer and you shall receive more than you can ever imagine in return.

Penguin Analysis: SEO Isn’t Dead, But You Need to Act Smarter (And 5 Easy Ways to Do So!)

Penguin Analysis: SEO Isn’t Dead, But You Need to Act Smarter (And 5 Easy Ways to Do So!)

The new Google Penguin update was a big change that has been very unsettling to SEO’ers, both blackhats and whitehats. It seems that everywhere you go, people who had previously considered themselves to be “professionals”, are now dumbfounded as their stable authority sites have moved from ranking in the top 5 for competitive keywords, to not ranking at all.

There has never been more whispers (both jokingly and not), that SEO is dead. Which leads me to…

The Number One Question People Are Asking:

What Did This Update Do and How Do I Recover? (By Reading This Post. Duh!)

Microsite Masters is in a unique position as we operate as a rank tracker; we have historical ranking data for thousands of websites. We have data on sites that are still doing great, and we have data on sites where rankings have tanked. We’ve decided to mine through all of this data (giving us a nice large sample size), and the results we found, although not unexpected by us, should give you a clear indication as to exactly how you should build and rank sites moving forward.

Ok, Now On To What You Really Care About. What Did We Find Out?

Link over-optimization is one of the most thrown around concepts in the SEO community now, so it was naturally where we decided to look first. We took a look at the sites that tanked and the sites that didn’t, and for both we looked at what their anchor text distribution was.

More specifically, we were interested in seeing what percentage of those links had anchor text for keywords that the site was trying to optimize SERP visibility for (such as “blue widgets”) versus any other type of anchor text (this could be “”, “blue widgets | the number one widget site”, “click here”, or anything that wasn’t a keyword containing measurable search volume).

What does this mean? It means that every single site we looked at which got negatively hit by the Penguin Update had a “money keyword” as its anchor text for over 60% of its incoming links. On the other hand, the sites that were not hit by the update had much more random percentages. Having over 60% of your anchor text being a money keyword did not guarantee that your site would be hit by the penalty (many of the sites not affected had numbers just as bad), but if under 50% of your anchor text for incoming links were “money keywords” it’s all but guaranteed you weren’t affected by this update.

Taking a look at the above information we compiled says much of the same. The graph above shows that only 5% of the sites affected by the update had a URL structure (ex: as 2 or more of their 5 most common anchor texts. On the other hand, nearly half of the sites not affected had the same. What does this mean? Most of you will say that this is a clear example that Google has issued a link over-optimization penalty (or at the very least over-optimization link devaluation), and that is absolutely correct.

However, that’s only half of what we uncovered (in fact, it’s the least important half!)

If This Update Isn’t Just About Over-Optimization, What Else Is Factored?

In the recent post made by Matt Cutts, he specifically called out pages that were trying to fake relevancy (or just weren’t relevant at all), and gave an exaggerated example of what to avoid.

Although his example is a little extreme, it gives insight into what Google is going after: links that are not relevant (and therefore not likely to be created naturally). This should come as no surprise to anybody that Google wants to avoid this. After all, how can a “citation” or “recommendation” (which is how the concept of link “valuation” first came to be) be valid if the citation or link has absolutely nothing to do with the page or site that it is on?

We decided to test this by taking a look at the top links for all of the sites contained in our study to see how many of those links came from sites that are in the same, similar, or related niches.

This data shows something very important: penalized sites generally had very little links coming from domains and websites in the same niche. The numbers obviously show that it’s OK, and probably beneficial to have links coming from nonrelevant sites, however it’s important to supplement those links with links coming from sites relevant to the subject matter of your site.

Conclusion: What Is Google Doing?

We just demonstrated the “actions” Google is taking by evaluating one of the best data sets in existence to conduct a case study of this nature, so it should be obvious that Google is trying to prevent over-optimization of links in terms of anchor text use and valuating links from relevant sites higher than links from non-relevant sites in terms of SERP visibility for the promoted site.

If you take a look at those two facts separately, you get two separate things you should be doing.

However, if you take a look at those two results together, a juicier piece of info comes out:

Google is trying to replace or devalue “anchor text” use with “niche/content relevancy of linking sites” as a primary link relevancy, (or “quality”) signal.

Anchor text, has been proven by SEO’ers for the past 10 years as easy to manipulate. However, obtaining links from websites or pages in a similar niches and with relevant content to the keyword you’re trying to rank for is generally much harder to manipulate. This reality and ease of the manipulation obviously prompted Google to create this update.

Furthermore, unlike 2 or 3 years ago, the technology to determine the niche of a domain or webpage is becoming much easier and much cheaper to use (I know this because I’ve internalized and use this technology). That means reliance on anchor text is not nearly as big of a “ranking factor” as it was before when it was much harder to determine content relevancy on a large scale.

That’s Some Great Info! But What Exactly Should I Be Doing?

(I’m Lazy and Don’t Care About Google Updates. I Just Want to Rank!)

Method #1: Create Microsites 

What are those? Besides being important enough to SEO that we decided to use that as one of the words in our company name, they have been a great way to rank sites in the past, and continue to be even after this update. Microsites are small(ish) topic-focused sites that provide useful content relative to your niche, and make sure to cite your main site as a primary source. Google wants the Internet to be filled with sites that provides users what they are looking for, and give authority to sites that are relevant to what the user is looking for. By creating smaller sites of “higher quality”, you get to expand your presence in your niche, and use that expanded visibility and send relevant and authoritative positive ranking signals towards your main site.

Method #2: High Quality Blog Networks 

This might be the most “black hat” solution, but it’s still effective. Recently ALN and BMR have proven that low quality networks which seemed to good to be true, are too good to be true.

It’s no longer enough to have private networks with small amounts of content, anchor text that is poorly placed within the context of the article, no (or very little) accountability in the area of content quality, and other gaping network-wide footprints and general low quality attributes.

A completely internalized niche blog network (which in reality is really a group of microsites) is as effective as it ever was and generally more selective than large public blog networks to ensure proper quality control and avoid footprints. More on that later!

Method #3: Diversify Anchor Text

If you are building links yourself, you have probably reached a decision where you could spend X (whether in time or dollars) with the anchor text of “a term I want to rank for” or “a term that appears naturally but I’m not trying to rank for”. Although you are consciously aware that you need a natural mix of both, each time an SEO’er is faced with that decision they tend to usually pick the first option because, well… it’s no fun to spend time and money building links that will probably not directly help you rank! Stop doing that and make sure that over 50% of your links contain anchor text that isn’t a keyword you are trying to rank for.

What anchor text should you be using? From the data we’ve evaluated, “”, “MySiteDomain”, “”, “”, “The Title of My Website”, “here”, and “the title of one of my H1’s (that isn’t a keyword I’m trying to rank for)”, were generally used as anchors on sites that were not affected by the most recent Google update and are probably a good starting point to consider using moving forward.

Method #4: Play Google’s Game

Get completely legitimate whitehat links! All of the previous points are ways to emulate a “natural” backlink profile. Meaning, ways to make your site look like it’s whitehat, despite possibly taking some shortcuts. The other (often forgotten) thing you can do, is actually use whitehat strategies!

Write legitimate guest posts on niche sites, find ways to get media coverage (HARO is probably one of the easiest ways to find news stories related to your niche). Last, as we’ve talked about before, viral marketing not only provides lots of visitors, but a ton of legitimate link power.

Method #5: Run Your SEO Sites Like a Real Business

One of the biggest things I noticed when pouring through our massive amounts of data is that sites that portrayed themselves as a “business” fared a lot better than sites which viewed themselves as a way to obtain and leverage traffic from Google in order to monetize.

What does this mean? A lot of things, but one of them is to look at other traffic sources besides Google. Not only will that make you less reliant on Google, and their seemingly fickle SERP shuffles, but those other traffic sources will almost certainly indirectly help your site rank better on Google.

Bonus Method: Keep Checking This Blog! 

Each of the points above are worth an entire post, and over the next couple of weeks we’ll be doing exactly that. So come back often to see each of those 5 points fleshed out as its own full blog post!

I’m Too Lazy To Even Read Bullet Points. Give Me The Cliff Notes!

SEO is getting harder, but it’s still possible (and  still relatively easy) to make money with it. Stop being lazy, and a good way to do that is to not rely on these cliff notes and actually read the article!

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